Normal human functioning relies upon normal functioning (physiology) and normal anatomy. Abnormalities in anatomy can reduce or eliminate a person’s chance of conceiving.
The most common anatomical causes of infertility include pelvic scarring and endometriosis. There are other less frequent causes such as intrauterine scarring (Asherman’s syndrome), congenital anomalies, and, uncommonly, fibroids.
The diagnostics tests used to assess anatomy has changed dramatically over the course of the last 20- 25 years. The advent of IVF has also altered the diagnostic approach to anatomy. Traditionally, an X-ray based test called a hysterosalpingogram, a surgical procedure termed a diagnostic laparoscopy were the basis for diagnostic testing for anatomical abnormalities. Ultrasound, particularly vaginal ultrasound, has revolutionized the anatomic evaluation.